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Suleiman Charitra and Jatakamala

As well as translating Kemendra’s Darpa Dalana for Rasāla recently, A.N.D. Haksar has two two other very disparate translations also out: Suleiman Charitra and Jatakamala. Both, in line with the diplomat-turned-translator’s now trademark style, use a combination of mainly prose with some elegant free verse to recount these poems in wonderfully readable modern English.

Suleiman Charitra of Kalyāa Malla is a small Sanskrit work with huge import across cultures. It relates the biblical tale of David’s fascination with, and ultimate seduction of, his general’s wife Bathsheba in the language and context of Sanskrit kāvya.

The story, told fairly economically in the Bible, has many of the elements of classic Sanskrit love poetry. With some imagination and many embellishments by the 16th century poet we soon have all the ingredients necessary: a powerful man burning with desire, a go-between, and a beautiful woman cautious at first but later an equal partner in ‘the battle of love’. The telling is all the poet’s own – from the leaf juice potion used to confound and inflame Bathsheba, to the description of the many positions they tried in their lovemaking ( Kalyāa Malla’s other work is a manual on sex) – and much much racier than the original. The beauty of Bathsheba – or Saptasuta as she is called, a rough translation of the name’s Hebrew meaning – follows kāvya conventions: her lips are as red as the bimba, her thighs shapely as the plantain, her waist adorned by the triple wrinkle. Even the distinctly non-erotic episode – in which David is made to see what a crime he has committed by sleeping with his general’s wife and then ensuring the general is killed in battle, and as a result is persuaded to have the first son Bathsheba bears him killed as recompense – is heavily influenced by Sanskrit thought. We thus have David, confronted by his ministers on his joy following his son’s death, expounding on the soul’s immortality, and the unreal nature of birth and death.

As the translator points out in the introduction, this wonderful example of cross-cultural influences deserves much more attention than it has so far attracted. Professor Minkowski, current Boden Professor at Oxford, did talk about it in the Boden lecture of 2006 but that aside this little poem has hardly been noticed. This translation, the first into English, will hopefully change that to some degree, and remind us that the coming together of different cultures can engender wonderfully rich fruit rather than inevitably leading to conflict and destruction.

Jatakamala, first translated by A.N.D. Haksar in 2003 and recently reprinted, could not be more different. This collection of stories about the previous births of the Buddha, composed by Ārya Śūra probably in the 4th century AD, is extremely well known and loved among both Buddhists and others. And this is nīti-kāvya, poetry designed primarily to educate and edify. There are beautiful women to be sure but the Buddha’s previous incarnations never swerve from their upright and moral conduct. Indeed, when the Buddha in one tale is struck with love for a particularly enchanting women who belongs to his minister, he, unlike David, does not yield to his passion, even as the husband entreats his master to take her as his wife.

Here we have a hero who can do no wrong, and whose many deeds – from offering his own body to be eaten to entering hell rather than fail to pay respects to a visitor – are so right that they seem not only impossible to emulate but difficult even to relate to, so far removed are they from normal human experience. And yet most of these stories are still a rip-roaring read. There is a huge variety of lively characters, from a prince who has inherited a taste for human flesh from his lion mother to a chick who refuses the worms his parents bring and prefers a vegetarian diet of leaves. Indeed the Buddha himself appears in many avatāras, including as several animals and also the king of the gods, Śakra. And we travel with him from the royal palace to (many a) hermitage to the edge of the world. In each story, he calmly meets the calamity or challenge before him, and is concerned only with how to help others and follow dharma, even at, in fact often at, the cost of his own life. The tales of the Buddha committing suicide or allowing his body to be trampled to hacked to death in order to feed or help others are famous, and justifiably so; for all the talk of this body being only a vehicle for spiritual pursuit, how many others are so ready to give it up so easily and so joyfully, and in such a painful manner?

The one story though that really touches the heart is that of the prince who is banished from his kingdom because of his great generosity, and happily goes to the forest as a renunciant, followed by his beloved wife and children. Their peace there is destroyed when a Brahmin comes one day and asks the prince for his children, to be servants to the Brahmin’s wife. The prince is upset but doesn’t for a second consider refusing the Brahmin his request, and remains steadfast even as his children – beaten in front of him by their new master – appeal to him for help. Śakra then comes to test him – as he does in many stories – by asking him for his wife, who has by this time returned from gathering fruit to the hermitage to find her children gone. This request too the prince grants.

There are morals aplenty here, as the author points out in the introduction and conclusion of each story, and as reiterated by the Dalai Lama in his preface to the book, but perhaps the greatest power of these tales is their ability to stick with the reader as an ever-ready moral compass beautifully decorated in a rainbow of colours.



The Seed of the Vedas

By Anand Viswanathan

श्रीरंग मंगळनिधिं करुणानिवासम्

श्रीवेंकटाद्रि शिखरालय काळमेघम् |

श्रीहस्तिशैल शिखरोज्वल पारिजातम्

श्रीशं नमामि शिरसा यदुशैलदीपम् ||

लक्ष्मी नाथ समारम्भां नाथ यामुन मध्यमाम्   |

असमदाचार्य पर्यन्तां वन्दे गुरु परम्पराम्  ||

The Vedas form the basis for all aspects of life in India from time immemorial. They can be broadly divided into purva bhagam (‘earlier portion’)and uttara bhagam (‘later portion’). The former talks in detail about all the karmas (actions) one has to perform and the latter talks about the ultimate goal that is to be reached by all the karmas. The latter portion or the end of the Vedas are called Vedanta (literally – ‘end of the Vedas’) and the main goal of Vedanta is to talk about paramatma or brahmam (the highest soul or being), jivatma (the individual soul of the devotee) and their relationship and how the jivatma can reach paramatma.

Vedanta is constituted of a number of Upanishads (they are termed so because they bring us near to brahmam- upa nishaditi Upanishad – “Upanishad means ‘bringing one nearer (to Brahman)’”). Ten important ones have been commented upon by various acharyas and their particular brand of philosophy established. The first shloka of Isaavasya Upanishad (which itself belongs to Shukla Yajur Vedam) forms the basis of this this essay’s discussion. This Upanishad was taught by Surya deva to Yagnyavalkya who in turn taught this to Tadyan Aatharvana. We get the Upanishad as an upadesha (text of instruction) from Tadyan Aatharvana to Subhodha, his son as well as disciple.

This is a short Upanishad with just 18 verses and it begins with a brilliant opening verse:

ॐ ईशा वास्यमिदम् सर्वं यत्किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् |

तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथा मा गृधः कस्य स्विद्धनम्  ||

The verse can be translated as follows (I give the literal translation and then the taatparyam – the ultimate meaning – of each)

ॐ ईशा वास्यमिदम् सर्वं- “All this that exists surrounds the lord like a cloth” (and, we understand, “is totally pervaded by him”)

All that can be known by different pramaanams (different ways of gaining knowledge) at all times surrounds the paramatma like a robe. This means that all this chit (mind/spirit) and achit (non-spirit, hence ‘matter’) which surround the paramatma is under his control just as a robe is controlled by its wearer. It (the universe) also conceals the brahmam so that we are unable to perceive him just as a robe covers the body.

In the Vishnu Suktam too, we read that

अन्तर्बहिश्च तत्सर्वं व्याप्य नारायणस्स्थितः “Narayana pervades inside and outside of all that exists.”

The creator and his creation, and the relationship between them is the subject of this quarter of the verse. An interesting quote from Mundakopanishad, verse 7 can be looked at in this context:

यथोर्णनाभिः सृजते गृह्णते च यथा पृथिव्या मोषधयः संभवन्ति  |

यथा सतः पुरुषात् केशलोमानी तथाऽक्षरात्  संभवतीह विश्वम् ||

“As a spider spreads out and withdraws its thread, as on the earth grow the herbs and the trees and as from a living man issues out hair, so out of the imperishable does the universe emerge.”

This quote also reveals that this universe comes forth from brahmam, sustains itself in brahman and finally rests in brahman after pralayam (‘universal destruction’).

Here, it is important and interesting to note that God is not someone who is isolated from us and wields his authority over us. The Paramatma resides in everything known and unknown in creation and guides our actions. The mistakes we commit are due to our conviction that we are right (which is against our inner informer).

Even though the Paramatma is present in everything, we must make efforts to know and see him. The means prescribed by the shastras are listening to his glory and thinking about his glory followed by uninterrupted continuous thought about him. This process is easier done when we take advantage of temples where Narayana resides as a arca murthi (idol).

People may doubt that the idol has all the qualities of the lord. The shanti patam of the Isavasya Upanishad dispels this doubt:

ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते |

पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ||

“Om. That is whole and complete; this is whole and complete.  From that whole this whole came.  If you remove that whole from this whole, what is left is still the whole remains.”

The whole referred to here can be interpreted in various ways. One is ‘brahmam and the world’. The other is ‘this object and that object’. In the second sense we can say that even in the idol he displays his full swaroopam (own nature).

To return to the opening verse of the Isaavasya Upanishad:

यत्किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथा-

“Sustain yourself with the insignificant portion of yours in this vast universe by performing three tyaagas (‘renunciations’)”

Here the Vedantic system emphasises our miniscule portion in the whole universe. We all are often deluded by our fleeting successes and the gaining of wealth etc but we must know that this all means nothing compared to the whole existence pervaded by brahmam.

In the Mahabharatam, Rishi Vyaasa succinctly but movingly expresses the objective of life as follows:

मातापितृसहस्राणि पुत्रदारशतानि च |

संसारेष्वनुभूतानि यान्ति यास्यन्ति चापरे ||

हर्षस्थानसहस्राणि भयस्थानशतानि च |

दिवसे दिवसे मूढं आविशन्ति न पण्डितम् ||

ऊर्ध्वबाहुर्विरौम्येष न च कश्चिच्छृणोति में |

धर्मादर्थश्च कामश्च स किं अर्थं न सेव्यते ||

न जातु कामान् न भयान्न लोभात् धर्मं त्यजेज्जीवितस्यापि हेतोः |

नित्यो धर्मः सुखदुःखे त्वनित्ये जीवो नित्यः हेतुरस्य त्वनित्यः ||

“Thousands of mothers and fathers, and hundreds of sons and wives arise in the world and depart from it. Others will (arise and) similarly depart. There are thousands of occasions for joy and hundreds of occasions for fear. These affect only him that is ignorant but never him that is wise. With uplifted arms I am crying aloud but nobody hears me. From Dharma comes Artha and Kama. Why should not Dharma, therefore, be courted? For the sake neither of pleasure, nor of fear, nor of cupidity should anyone cast off Dharma. Dharma is eternal. Pleasure and pain are not eternal. Jiva is eternal. The cause, however, of Jiva’s being invested with a body is not so.”

We can lead a normal life with whatever we earn but only if we do so with detachment. The word त्यक्तेन (“with detachment”) is extremely important in this context. The three types of tyaagas are known as kartruthva budhdhi tyaagam (the thought that I am not the doer but it is Narayana), mamathaa tyaagam (that this is not my karma) and phala tyaagam(without expecting any result for the action). Krishna thus instructed Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita(3.30):

मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि संन्यस्याध्यात्मचेतसा |

निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ||

“Therefore, O Arjuna, surrendering all your works unto Me, with full knowledge of Me, without desires for profit, with no claims to proprietorship, and free from lethargy, fight.”

For according to him attachment is the root of all evils (this is not something later discovered by other religious leaders but told to us by our own Gita Acharya , 2.62 and 2.63 ):

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |

सङ्गात्संजायते कामः कामात्क्रोधो ऽभिजायते ||

क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः |

स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ||

“While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.From anger, complete delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost one falls down again into the material pool.”

Hence Swami Vedanta Deshika prays for vairaagyam (freedom from worldly desires) in this world in his Vairagya Panchakam (verse 1)

क्षोणी कोण शतांश पालन कला दुर्वार गर्वानल-

क्षुभ्यत्  क्षुद्र नरेन्द्र चाटु रचना धन्यान् न मन्यामहे |

देवं सवितुम् एव निश्चिनुमहे योऽसौ दयाळुः पुरा

धाना मुष्टि मुचे कुचेल मुनये दत्ते स्म वित्तेशताम्  ||

Extended meaning:

“There is no King who rules the entire world. The different kings rule little parcels of land on this earth. The haughtiness of these kings is huge and grows like wild fire. There are human beings, who praise these insignificant kings to the sky. They get rewards from these kings and consider themselves fortunate. We do not consider these deluded ones as significant ones. Our philosophy and values are different from these people. We believe that eulogising Sriman Narayanan will grant us all the wealth we need even without our asking.

Once upon a time, there was a pious man with the name of Kuchela, who was dirt poor. His life was steeped in poverty. Kuchela was a boyhood friend and classmate of Krishna. He had nothing to give for his friend except a fistful of pounded rice when he went to visit Krishna. That was all he could afford. The most merciful Lord accepted that present as a great gift and blessed Kuchela with wealth comparable to that of Kubera. Following this path, we are determined to prostrate ourselves before our Lord and seek the wealth from Him alone.

For further guidance in this context of detachment and renunciation, we may look at a few question and answers from the Yaksha Prashnam episode of Mahabharata. The Yaksha Prashna is an episode with a great deal of practical relevance for in today’s world.

यक्ष उवाच

किं नु हित्वा प्रियो भवति किं नु हित्वा न शोचति |

किं नु हित्वाऽर्थवान्भवति किं नु हित्वा सुखी भवेत् ||

युधिष्ठिर उवाच

मानं हित्वा प्रियं भवति क्रोधं हित्वा न शोचति |

कामं हित्वाऽर्थवान्भवति लोभं हित्वा सुखी भवेत्  ||

“The yaksha asked:

‘What is that if renounced makes one dear to all? What is it that if renounced does not lead to regret? What is it that if renounced makes one wealthy? What is it that when renounced makes one happy?

Yudhishtira answered:

‘Pride, if renounced makes one dear to all. Wrath, if renounced leads to no regret. Desire, if renounced makes one wealthy. Avarice, if renounced makes one happy.’”

And finally the concluding section of the Isaavasya Upanisad’s opening shloka:

मा गृधः कस्य स्विद्धनम्-

“Do not steal anyone else’s money”

This fits well with the rest of the sloka. All this is indeed brahmam (paramatma and his body constituted of jivas and achit or objects without jnaanam) and by stealing evanescent material things we cannot acheive anything. Moreover it is against the Dharma Shashtras. We are already subjects to unknown purva karmas (earlier deeds) and take birth again and again to expend our karmas. A metaphor from the Upanishads:

द्वा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते |

तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं स्वाद्वत्त्यनश्नन्नन्यो अभिचाकशीति ||(Mundakopanishad:3rd mundaka:verse 1)

“Two birds that are ever associated having similar attributes nest in the same tree. Of these one eats the fruit of divergent tastes and the other looks on without eating.”

Here the bird that looks on as a witness is the paramatma and the bird that eats the fruit is the jiva. The fruit is nothing but the karma and tree is the body of a living being. While the jiva eats the fruit and diminishes in attributes, brahmam on the other hand remains unaffected.

Additional note from the नीतिद्विषष्टिका of Sundarapandya:

ते मूर्खा मूर्खतमा येषां धनमस्ति नास्ति च त्यागः |

केवलमार्जनरक्षणवियोगदुःखान्यनुभवन्ति ||

“Those unwise persons who own wealth but do not part with it for good causes are the most foolish for, experiencing the miseries of earning, guarding and losing it alone ultimately fall to their lot.”

Thus the overall import of the opening verse is clear. Since everything that exists is brahmam and his property, we should live a life of detachment, should not covet anyone else’s wealth and should aim to attain moksham (ultimate liberation from the cycle of rebirth)since we ourselves are his property.

The significance of starting the Upanishad this way is to immediately impress upon our hearts the close relationship between the jivatma and the paramatma, hence the need to know more about him and thus induce in ourselves the required eagerness to proceed on the path of brahma-vidya (knowledge of brahman).

I conclude here with a prayer from the Upanishads:

ॐ आप्यायन्तु ममाङ्गानि वाक्प्राणश्चक्षुः श्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि च सर्वाणि |

सर्वं ब्रह्मौपनिषदं माऽहं ब्रह्म निराकुर्यां मा मा ब्रह्म निराकरोदनिराकरणमस्त्वनिराकरणं  मेऽस्तु |

तदात्मनि निरते य उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु |

“May my limbs, speech, vital force, eyes, ears, as well as my strength and all organs become strong. Everything is the brahman revealed in the Upanishads. May I not deny brahman; may not brahman deny me. Let there be no spurning (of me by brahman), let there be no rejection (of brahman) by me. May all the virtues that are spoken of in the Upanishads repose in me, engaged in the pursuit of the self as I am – may they repose in me.”

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ||

The author is currently pursuing a Master’s in Electrical Engineering at Arizona University.

Meditation on Meditation – Dr Varanasi Ramabrahmam


Dr Varanasi Ramabrahmam

In this piece, the Upanishadic insight of human consciousness and mind, their form, structure and function will be analytically presented together with the description of phases and states of mind to get an idea of how the mind works. Calming the mind is presented as a process of de-learning illusory knowledge, relearning the real nature of human-being and then practising how to completely unlearn or be unaware of all the new knowledge too but not the insight gained. It will be argued that meditation and calming the mind are synonymous with self realisation and are the exact opposite to the process of generation of thoughts. The importance of possessing an open mind, having faith together and being on good terms with others will be stressed.


The ability to calm the mind is of the utmost importance in modern life. Many meditative techniques currently in vogue are intended to help humans to cope with the stresses and strains associated with today’s lifestyles. In many cases traditional meditation techniques are presented as popular modern methods. Attempts to calm the mind will give the desired results if meditation is undertaken in full knowledge and understanding of the mind and the nature of the meditation process.  

Upanishadic philosophy is Sat-Darsana, a revelation of truth. The process of arriving at and experiencing truth is technically termed self realisation.  With self realisation comes a calm mind and an increased mental functionality. One must possess absolute faith to calm the mind: faith in the approach, faith in the text and the teacher and faith in oneself. Cultivating, engaging in and maintaining a stable and harmonious relationship with others helps the aspirant in attempts to calm the mind.  Often the lack of harmony hinders the aspirant from finding mental peace.  The mere observation or practice of a meditative technique in an academic or mechanical way may not help the individual in his/her aim.

                Ego – self-consciousness, the collection of thoughts about ‘I’ as body and associated personality traits, social status, ‘me’ and ‘mine’ – creates vasanas (impressions/experiences/memories) within us. All cognition/perception/volition/urge-related experiences are created and retrieved by the antahkarana (inner mental tool) chittam (sense/idea/mood/insight/mind). Egoistic thoughts and actions (with the thought and sense of ‘I’, where ‘I’ is identified with the respective individual) in awakened/wakeful and dream conscious states creates memories (vasanas). These memories are later activated (with reference to the passage of physical time) and cause happiness or unhappiness accordingly in the present. The state of mind bereft of egoistic thoughts, memories or other cognitions/perceptions/experiences is the state of Self (Atman) – it is ego-free, blissful, peaceful and time-transcendent. This state is called jagrat sushupti or wakeful sleep. The three other conscious states – the awakened/wakeful (jagrat), the dream (svapna) and deep sleep (sushupti) – are transient super-impositions over the present wakeful sleep (jagrat sushupti); they occur simultaneously or alternately. 

                Memories and the record of our experiences are our psychological past and our fears, anxieties, imaginations, expectations etc., form our psychological future. The thought-flow concerning these past and future memories activated as remembrances and fear, anxiety, anticipation, apprehensions, imaginations etc., consist of our psychological past and future and gives us the awareness of time and the sense of the passage of time. Thus thought-flow (reflected chit-energy transformations) is psychological time and its flow. Living in the ‘past or future’ in the present leads to peacelessness. The aim of spirituality is to enable one to cultivate the habit of living in the physical present with peace.

     Such a spiritual tradition suggests that the aim of human birth is to cease to be ‘human’ and be divine – Ego-free – to transcend human nature and live in eternal blissful ego-free state. The word ‘human’ in human being refers to the ecstasy, excitement, grief, fear, anxiety, thrill, sense of achievement or disappointment and many other psychological comforts or discomforts experienced by men and women during the course of life. A human being grows tired of these psychological pulls and pushes and craves relief from this chain of states of emotional disorders to find peace. Some study Vedanta  to attain peace of mind and some to acquire knowledge and to satisfy their intellectual curiosity. Arriving at the truth grants peace in both cases and calms the mind.  Peace and calmness are divine qualities. So are pure consciousness, being, bliss, silence and timelessness. The mental process by which one can attain these qualities of divinity or the method by which a human being transforms himself/herself into a calm divine being is known as meditation on the Self – the real Nature of the individual. The divine being is also called Self, Brahman, Atman.

     Eka vastu chintanam eva dhyanam (literally ‘meditation is concentrating simply thinking about just one thing’) is one definition of meditation. This means that meditation is contemplation on a divine quality, of which the end result is that the mind merges into that quality and becomes that quality – this is what we call self realisation. 

     Theology proposes Bhakti – the path of devotion – for this purpose. In this method the mind   concentrates on a name or form of a chosen auality of divine being and meditates on that name or form.  This name or form is in fact a manifestation of the Self and the mind thus has a single focus. At the appropriate moment, divine grace enables the mind merge into that name or form.

    Another definition of meditation is: dhyanam artha bhavanam (literally ‘meditation is contemplating on the meaning’). This is the path of knowledge. This meditation process involves concentrating the mind on study and learning and hence understanding the divine nature. This path also leads to a calm and peaceful mind.   

     In short, meditation or calming the mind consists in concentrating the mind on a chosen thing or contemplating upon a chosen concept, expression or insight.

     The Upanishads contain descriptions of the Self and many ways of meditating on the Self, known as Vidya (possesssing and contemplating on right knowledge) or Upasana. The knowledge other than that of the Self is termed Avidya (literally ‘non-knowledge’) by the Upanishadic sages. According to their definition, Avidya consists of all sciences, arts, skills and the learning of languages and other disciplines and art forms.

    The Isaavaasya Upanishad advises us to make use of both Vidya and Avidya while meditating on the Self to attain calmness within and warns that using only one of them leads to darkness – the Upanishadic term for ignorance (sloka 9). The eleventh sloka of this Upanishad teaches us the proper way of meditating on the Self,

                                Vidyaam cha avidyaam cha yastadvedoobhyam saha

                                Avidyayaa mrtyum teertvaa vidyayaa amritam asnute

    This means that one must contemplate on and be aware of the Self by using both Avidya and Vidya. Through Avidya one crosses mortality and by Vidya one attains immortality. Immortality is the release from the cycle of birth and death i.e., from the rise and the setting of an egoistic mind (mithyaaham – literally ‘a false “I”’). An egoistic mind and self-consciousness are responsible for all disturbances the individual experiences. Thus knowledge about both Vidya and Avidya is necessary for one to meditate on the Self and live as the Self in and with calmness.

     The antahkaranas manas, buddhi, ahamkaaram and chittam enable us to engage and disengage with the perceived and experienced external world and acquire knowledge and activate the inbuilt tendencies- i.e., the arishadvargas. All this knowing or mental activity called Tamas (ignorance) hinders the seer (sat/atman) and makes one view only the seen (jagat-retrieved inner mental world). Thus this engagement of the antahkaranas with the perceived or experienced external world is Ajnaana in Upanishadic terms.

     The term Ajnana here is used not to belittle any of the acquired knowledge in any way but only to point out that truth, self, pure consciousness or prajnaanam outlives rather than transcends all these perceptions, intellectual operations, self-consciousness, experiences and their recollections by being, manifesting as and in, causing, maintaining and observing the origin, the becoming and cessation of all these mental functions carried out by the antahkaranas.  It is this that is the ultimate Jnaana (knowledge).

     The mind as the activities of the antahkaranas is like a boat in the river of consciousness and the self-consciousness of the person is the individual travelling in the boat. The boat helps the person to proceed in the course of the life and at the end the river, the boat and the individual together merge in the sea of pure consciousness. Thus meditation is a journey on the boat of the mind by the meditator to reach the Self, the divinity, and become one with it. After this merging with the divinity, no trace of the meditator or the meditative tool (the mind) remains. Only object-free meditation continues – this is simply the blissful state of the Self continuously experienced which maintains the mind’s calm.

    An individual by his samskaara – inbuilt hereditary mental tendencies – has a natural proclivity towards a particular antahkarana as a meditating tool and thus meditates. Different meditative techniques are available to suit the temperament and mental make up and preparedness of the individual.

                The Self or Brahman or Atman or Prajnaanam is always present. This is the revelation and the essence of Upanishadic Teachings. It is interesting to note that being (sat), pure consciousness (chit) and bliss (aananda) are the characteristics of the Self as described in the Upanishads. Being is a present continuous form of the verb ‘to be’ and becoming the present continuous form of ‘to become’; the becoming is the physical and psychological manifestation of the being. The natural state of a human being is being, the present continuous form of ‘to be’ and not becoming – which is limited by memory of the past and speculation as to the future. But the normal state of a human being is a combination of a series of being and becoming or peace and disturbance, past and future – or fluctuation between all these – and seldom is being, the natural present continuous state, the blissful state. One becomes something when one cognises an object or uses an antahkarana or the mind.  When the mind ceases to cognize, one returns to the natural state of being. Becoming is a super-position and causes disturbance to this being and makes one live in an unreal state.

                The mind, in the form of antahkaranas, transforms human beings into a human becomings as it were.  Luckily this transformation is transitory and reversible. These transformations of the mind worry ordinary people. But the realised souls are always aware of the transitory nature of these transformations and the simultaneous presence of the two present continuous forms – the being and the becoming, which are consciousness and awareness – and are always beings. They only view the becomings in the form of vasanas and jagat occurring within and without and are not concerned or touched by these ‘unreal’ happenings.

                The Upanishads talk about Mithyaham – the virtual Self or maya (illusion).  The virtual Self is the reflected Sat and is made up of the same stuff as Sat. This virtual Self is the first becoming in the individual and is responsible for and contained in all mental functions, which are its own transformations. The virtual self always transforms itself as antahkaranas resulting in the perceptions and experiences (vasanas) which are viewed by and are aware of the Self in the different conscious states. The various transformations of the virtual Self as various antahkaranas to perform various mental functions what you can call reversible becomings (vivartanam).  These becomings constitute mental activity and the sense of the passage of time in the individual; they make the individual aware of the body, psychology, gender, social status etc, as well as the form and structure of ego and self-consciousness.

                If these becomings – the thoughts, feelings, intellectual functions, perceptions, experiences, understandings, urges, instincts and tendencies – all cease to happen or the virtual Self undergoes no transformations then it is unoccupied awareness, bliss, peace, silence, eternity and hence timelessness. Thought-ego- and feeling-free consciousness results in an experience of calm and peace within and is observed by the Self as the Prajnanam or seer. The Self as seer is always present and is eternal and timeless; it is a present continuous being. A reading of this transcript is itself a de-learning, relearning and unlearning process i.e., a way to calm the mind.

Note: The method of meditation as a means of calming the mind cannot be generally prescribed.  Just as a psychologist treats each case individually so too the method of calming mind is specific to each individual and depends greatly on one’s mental makeup.

1. Meditation/calming the mind veils our ignorance and unveils our knowledge and real self.

2. Meditation/calming the mind veils our false identity and unveils our real or true identity.

3. Meditation/calming the mind veils our unreal or apparent or misunderstood nature and unveils our true and real nature.

Sri Ramana Maharshi:

4. Find out wherefrom this ‘I’ springs forth and merge at its source; that is tapas-meditation.

5. Find out wherefrom the sound of the mantra in japa rises up and merge there; that is tapas-meditation.  


Ramabrahmam, V., 2007, Upanishadic ways of calming the mind, Presentation at the national seminar on “The Indian Approach to Calming the Mind” on 25th and 26th August, 2007 at Veda Vijnana Gurukulam, Bangalore.

Time – Dr Varanasi Ramabrahmam


By Dr Varanasi Ramabrahmam


Time plays a significant, influential and useful role in our lives. Our daily routine is time-based and time-bound. The origin, being and cessation of things, objects, events, thoughts and life systems are all time-related. All natural, man-made and man-initiated processes take place according to time and its passage. In all disciplines of learning time has a prominent role to play.


We ‘know’ what time is. Earth spins around itself and simultaneously revolves round the sun. Based on these movements, day and night are created and we experience and measure the passage of time. We know the extent of the passage of time by referring to watches, clocks and various time-measuring devices such as calendars, almanacs etc. The awareness of time through these means is not comprehensive and complete. Awareness of the nature of time is varied.  Like divinity, time is multifaceted. Time has many forms, structures, natures and has been viewed, defined and understood variously.


We all lead stressful personal and professional lives with the associated pulls and pushes which at times strain us beyond our ability, capacity and capability. We long for calmness to bring peace of mind. We pray to the Almighty for peace of mind. Some of us who do not believe in God have our own ways of de-stressing ourselves. Thus in seeking peace of mind we desire and attempt to know the nature of the mind. Some of us take refuge in our Protector. We follow the path of spirituality. We listen to (sravana), meditate on (manana) and convert the insight thus gained by contemplation into experience (nididhyasana) about the Almighty or the Self.   The Almighty and the Self are synonyms representing Divinity, our original self. The Self can also be taken as the natural or normal or original state of mind. We can thus know about the Self and merge our self in a chosen quality of the Self. We can reach a state of self-realisation and dwell in it and with it and as it.


As part of this we now try to know and be aware of the nature of time, time-flow as past, present and future, and time-transcendence. It is known to us through our beloved Sri Krishna Paramatma (His Lord the great-souled Krishna) that He is both time and time-transcendence. Sri Krishna famously said: “Aham kaalah asmi” (I am time) – see Bhagavad Gita 10, 30 and 33. To realise the nature of time-transcendence we must know time – its nature, structure, form and flow.


Time is of two kinds: physical and psychological. Time flows eternally transforming seconds into minutes, minutes into hours, hours into days, days into months, months into years, years into decades, decades into centuries and centuries into millennia.  All this is physical time and its flow.


We tune into this physical time and the happenings within it by attaching ourselves to these happenings with an ego-centric mind as I, me and mine. Our tuning and attachment creates another dimension of time, a time-consciousness in us. This creation takes place in the wakeful conscious state of mind and is experienced in wakeful and dream conscious states of mind. This is called psychological time or time-space.


The eternal Self (paramatma) transcends both physical time and its flow. The Self exists in us as prajnanam (witness) and makes us aware of physical and psychological time and its passage. During those phases of awareness, Prajnaam as the see-er makes us experience our respective experiences.


We can not stop the flow of physical time. Psychological time however is experienced by us as past, present and future in different phases or conscious states of mind. It creates as it were a time whirlpool in us.


Our mental time and its flow is the series of rising and setting of various phases of mind – wakeful, dream and deep sleep – and the acquiring of knowledge, skills, thoughts, feelings, experiences etc, or the cessation of thought processes happening during those phases. “I, I am doing, it is mine, it has happened to me, I am hurt, I am happy, I am experiencing, etc.” – such thoughts, feelings and experiences exist in our awareness and create in us moods. When we learn these acquisitions create in us experiences which in turn become memories. And these memories remain with us.


These memories of events and things which happened a long time ago in terms of physical time, are stirred and activated in the present and elicit a corresponding emotion.  According to these memories, we feel anger, lust, jealousy and so on, which can lead to a emotional disturbance in the present. Thus the remembrances and thoughts about past happenings and their impression on us form our psychological past. Because we do not have enough mental strength we cannot emerge from this past, which exists only in the psyche, and we thus torture ourselves and live only in the past.


The future too disturbs us. We fear, become anxious and pessimistically or optimistically imagine future events based on what has happened to us in the past, what we know and have experienced. Thus the future, that which we believe will happen, is simply a collection of our thoughts in the present as hopes, anxieties, doubts or fears. Thus when we analyse time, we realise that both our past and future are nothing but our thoughts in the present. If we can somehow manage to arrest these thoughts we can escape from this vicious circle of yesterday and tomorrow and live in the present.


We need to submit ourselves to Divinity by thought, word and deed. We then offer our self-consciousness and ego to the Lord and submerge ourselves in Him. When we do this, we avoid the thoughts relating to I, me and mine. These thoughts do not only pause for the present; they will permanently cease to arise in us. This cessation of thought-forms is time- or mind-transcendence.


By God’s grace we can transcend the psychological time flow which exists in us in the form of the flow of thoughts. The mind becomes calm and peaceful when we shed our ego and fill ourselves instead with insight about Divinity. By attributing everything to God’s will, we can live with equanimity, taking everything in our stride. The mind acquires the strength needed to face life. We will tackle all problems with courage and calmness. We will be rid of thoughts about the past or the future. We live in the present. We live in tranquility.



Ramabrahmam, V, Being and Becoming: A Physics and Upanishadic awareness of time and thought process, Ludus Vitalis, International Journal of Philosophy of Life Sciences, Vol. XIII, Number 24, 2005, pp.139-152.

Ramabrahmam, V., The Science of human consciousness, Ludus Vitalis, International Journal of Philosophy of Life Sciences, Vol. XV, Number 27, 2007, pp. 127-142.

A discussion on ‘mind’ – Dr Varanasi Ramabrahmam

  The Structure and Function of Mind-An ancient Indian insight

Dr Varanasi Ramabrahmam         17th March 2009

Human consciousness creates a conscious relationship between body functions and mental functions and also can dissolve such a relationship. When such a relationship is dissolved the right identification of “I” happens. The real identification of ‘I” provides the natural or normal or ground state of mind.

     The natural or normal state of human mind is peace; bliss; silence. Mental functions form a veil over this natural state and superimpose themselves on this pure consciousness as awareness, and pure consciousness transforms into simultaneous existence of consciousness and awareness. The awareness also creates self-consciousness in the individual and then the individual relates oneself to the body, gender, social status, nationality, mental traits etc., and “falsely” identifies with all of them because of the self-focus of its mind.

     Human consciousness is the source, guide and energy-provider for the human mind and its activities. The human mind possesses three kinds of awareness simultaneously. They are: (i) unoccupied awareness or pure consciousness (ii) awareness of within the body and (iii) awareness of without the body (the last two together are known as occupied awareness).

    The human mind tunes itself to without the body through the sense organs and acts, reacts or interacts through action organs for cognitions and perceptions created by external stimuli from the physical world outside the body. Eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin, stimulated by light, sound, chemical, mechanical and thermal forms of energy respectively, are sense organs. Movements related to hands, legs, vocal chords, reproductive organ and bowels are action organs. Information from the external physical world is stored as an inner mental world consisting of cognitions, perceptions and cognition-created or -related experiences. The entire external physical world is a projection of individual’s mind, with associated limitations.  Individuals deal with these mental projections sometimes in a partisan way depending on that individual’s ability to know, perceive, reason, feel, intuit, understand and experience the reality.

    The human mind tunes itself to within the body – the senses aches, pains and inner mental world. It also carries out activities of the intellect. The inner mental world is made up of information known, sensed by the sense organs and perceptions and experiences created by such cognitions and knowledge in the form of external stimuli. These are retrieved by the mind to create moods, intuitions in the form of verb, meaning, sense, understanding, insight, experience and urges.  These in turn become thoughts, perceptions and feelings in the form of sentences. The information about an individual (self-consciousness with an egoistic mind); the languages learnt together with the meanings, senses of sounds (words) and utterances; the forms of each letter and the objects of the external physical world as words, sights, sounds, tastes, smells, touches and the perceptions and insight; and understanding gained by the contemplation of perceptions – all of these form the inner mental world. All this knowledge acquired through the sense organs working in tandem with mind can be called biophysical.

    Instincts, urges and similar impulses created and guided by hormones and gland secretions-which also constitute the knowledge possessed by the individual organism and can be termed biochemical – also inspire and stimulate the mind to act, react and interact. The human mind is also capable of being in a state where and when all mental functions and cognitions cease to be or the mind transcends ongoing mental functions and the effects of stimuli from the external physical world and will be a mere witness to them as an uninvolved and unaffected spectator or seer. This state is the original state of the human mind similar to zero in the number system and vacuum in the physical sciences. At that point the state of mind is pure consciousness or unoccupied awareness and exists as peace, bliss and silence. Thus the human mind is sourced from human consciousness both materially, energy-wise and functionally. Human consciousness is always present. The human mind rises and sets depending on the phase or conscious state. 

 Conscious states or phases of the mind in terms of virtual mental energy-reflection series and its transformation:

     Wakeful/Awakened, Dream (Swapna), Deep Sleep (Sushupti) and Wakeful Sleep (Jagrat Sushupti) – are different conscious states of mind creating different phases of mind. They are structure and phases of mental Time-Space and time created by the presence of mental energy source and transformations associated with virtual mental energy reflection. The mind functions or ceases to function in these states.

  • (i) Jagrat Sushupti (wakeful sleep):

 A series of ‘I -I’ pulses’ issue   out and virtual energy creation and transformation, when necessary, takes place. The mind is active if willed. The sense and action organs are alert and ready to function. Through meditation one reaches this state: the state of unoccupied awareness, purport silence, bliss, peace, pure consciousness divine consciousness and the real ‘I’ state. This is the  ormal, original, natural or ground state of mind. State of being of mind

  • (ii) Sushupti (deep sleep):

A series of ‘I-I’ pulses’ issue out and mind is in a state of absorprtion. No transformation of virtual metal energy reflection takes place. Sense and action organs are not in a functional state.  There is no awareness of within or without the bodycognitions or remembrances-cognitions related or created experiences or understanding or insight or intuition or urge. State of cessation of mental activities- State of Being of mind

  • (iii) Jagrat (wakeful):

The mind is active. Sense and action organs are active and working. All knowing and expressing takes place in this state. Meditation starts in this state (awareness of without the body). Becoming of mind   Excited state of mind.

  • (iv) Swapna (dream):

The mind is active. Sense organs are in a dormant state.  The action organs will be functioning if necessary. Meditation becomes one-pointed in this state (awareness of within of the body).Becoming of mind Excited state of mind

      Manas, Buddhi, Chittam and Ahamkaram are inner mental tools.  Experiences created by perceived or retrieved object-energy forms are remembrances and cognitions.  The stored and retrieved collection of perceived object-energy forms is the inner mental world.   Jagrat Sushupti (Wakeful Sleep) is unoccupied awareness.  Knowing/learning expressions/teaching, thought, perception, experience, understanding, volition, urges etc., are  occupied awarenesses, which happen in Jagrat (wakeful) and swapna (dream) conscious states.  Sushupti – State of cessation of mental activities.

    Humans know/learn and express/teach in these conscious states of mind. These conscious states or phases of mind are the result of a transformation of the psychic or mental energies in the unchanging and ever-present consciousness/awareness present during all these conscious states as energy-presence.  Upanishadic awareness calls such awareness Atman or Brahman or PrajnaanamAtman is normally referred to as Self. As explained above, Atman is present in us and is the result of the breathing process and is the source of mental-energy. In modern scientific terms it is also is termed as an infrasonic bio-mechanical oscillator which issues out psychic or mental energy pulses at a frequency of 10Hz. Thus Atman is the oscillating (with infrasonic frequency of 10 Hz) psychic energy-presence denoting and providing mental consciousness/awareness and time-space.

                As Prajnanam, or continuous conscious awareness, Atman witnesses all our mental activities, related body activities and happenings within and without the body and the body’s reactions as thoughts and organ-movements to these happenings. Present as a consciousness/awareness, Atman provides the energy required for guiding the mind to know/cognise/learn through the sense organs; to perceive, think, experience, understand, etc.; and to store and retrieve such information in the four conscious states described above.  It makes us conscious of within and without of ourselves and ourselves. Such continuous and simultaneous or alternate rising and setting of the conscious states or phases of mind is an aspect of psychological time and its flow.

                The Upanishads see awareness of self as a psychological time-space.  Awareness of the Self is the mental phase without cognitions or cognition-related experiences taking place or retrieved (the Wakeful Sleep Conscious State).  The three other conscious states – the Wakeful/Awakened, the Dream and Deep Sleep-Conscious states – are alternate super-impositions over this continuously present conscious state.  This state of mind transcends both physical and psychological times and time-flows.  This is the normal or original state of mind; all mental activities are excited states of mind.

                Inner mental tools perform various mental activities to transform psychic energy (virtual mental energy-reflection) and to cognise and create or retrieve thoughts/perceptions/experiences/understandings/meanings etc., in us. Thought-flow within us, which is the psychic-energy change during conscious states, also constitutes psychological time and time-flow.  Thought process and thought-flow is the becoming of psychic energy which makes us conscious of time and time-flow. This insight is further explained in the following sections.

The mechanics of mind:

            The following is an interpretation and explanation of being and becoming of mind: formation, structure and function of human consciousness; formation and retrieval of the inner mental world and cognition-created experiences/senses/moods which participate in the cognitive processes; an explanation of  the mechanism of sensing/knowing/learning/expressing/teaching/thought process/perception/experience/understanding; and an experience of meaningful experience and experienced meaning as expressed  in the Upanishads.

    Human mind has four conscious states or phases, seven cognitive states and five kinds of functional states. They are:

Conscious states or Phases of mind:

Wakeful Sleep, deep sleep, wakeful or awakened and dream. These are discussed in detail above. Human consciousness is always on as conscious awareness and it is only the mind that rises or sets during these conscious states of mind causing cognition and cognition-related experiences, storing and retrieving them in respective phases. Human consciousness is the form, the structure and the consequence of the breathing process and generates psychic energy which then performss all human cognitions and cognition-related functions. Cognition and cognition-related functions are the result of the reversible becoming of this psychic energy.  Human consciousness bifurcates as consciousness, that is aware of the cognitions and related activities and the occurrence of the activities themselves. When these activities are taking place, a dual role is played by the human consciousness. There is also a phase when no cognitions or cognition-related activity is taking place and it is the original or normal or natural state of human mind, the non-dual or peaceful, blissful or silent phase of mind.

Cognitive States of mind:

Seven states of cognition are identified in relation to the ego-transcending or egoistic or self-conscious state of mind. These cognition states function around the, ‘I’-consciousness, ‘I’-sense, the ‘I’-thought or feeling and ‘I’-expression or utterance or in the absence of such identification. Then no individual- specific information will be in the mental awareness and the mind transcends to a state or phase when the mental awareness becomes one with the consciousness and non-duality in the form of peace, bliss, or silence is experienced. Cognitions cease to take place but will take place if willed or necessary.  The seven cognitive states of mind are: 

Pure consciousness:

Normal or original state of mind:

  • (I) “I” Consciousness – No “I” Awareness of and about individual
  • (II) Meditative state of mind. One pointed awareness.

Egoistic State of mind

  • (III) “I” Awareness/Sense/mood- Ego Sense – State of verb/meaning/understanding/experience/intuition/urge – Infinite form or present continuous form of verb without subject or object attached.
  • (IV) ‘I” Thought/Feeling (awareness of within the body) – state of sentence with subject-verb-object-perception
  • (V) ‘I” Thought/Feeling (awareness of without the body) in relation to outside physical world. The mind is tuned to the outside world through the sense organs
  • (VI) “I” Utterance/Expression and also the reception of stimuli from the outside world and expression through the action organs.
  • (VII) No “I” Awareness of or about individual- No Self consciousness or perpetuations of mental functions. State of cessation of all types of mental functions.


Kinds of functional states of mind:

(a). Getting tuned to and sensing stimuli from external physical world through sense organs and reception.

(b). Actions, reactions or interactions with external physical world activated by hormones or stored information.

(c). Perception/thinking/reasoning/feeling in accordance with the stimuli from external world or information retrieved from inner mental world.

(d). Conversion of above information into intelligible information as understanding or insight or experience

(e). Awareness of understanding/intuition/urge/mood/experience/meaning/experience.

All this happening in the consciousness of Self or Atman or Brahman – the infrasonic mechanical oscillator forming and functioning as human consciousness.

     While the mind is functioning, there will be a differentiated perception of knower-knowing-known or subject-verb-object, which will be missing and absent when non-dual (advaita) awareness or pure consciousness becomes unoccupied awareness. Experiencing or understanding a verb is a state of experience and at that time the knower-known or subject-object are not attached to the verb. The verb will be in a present continuous form or infinite form depending on its absorption of information or understanding cognition or experiencing cognition or urge or intuition or sense or meanings of utterances received or to be expressed.

     We knowingly or unknowingly alternate between non-dual (advaita) and dual (dvaita) awareness while functioning mentally.  Wakeful and dream conscious states of mind represent and account for the phase of mind when functioning and then we also are aware of and sense or perceive self-consciousness. Once the mind ceases to function, we experience peace, bliss and silence within. If these are experienced with our being aware them, then the phase of mind at that time is known as wakeful sleep. If we are unaware, but are conscious of these, the phase of mind then is known as deep sleep. The phase of the cessation of mental functions (also self-consciousness) is similar to zero in the number system and vacuum in the physical and biological sciences. Vacuum is inherent in matter and holds matter and is manifested when matter is missing or absent. Consciousness is awareness of mind when no mental functions are taking place.

            In the Advaita (non-dual) state, the human mind possesses consciousness only. As Prajnanam, Atman gives consciousness and awareness to observe, to be aware of and to be conscious of understanding, meanings and senses of cognitions and cognition created experiences.  During advaita phase, there is no transformation of the virtual mental energy reflection – no creation, transformation and functioning of inner mental tools but the current of awareness is connected to the sense organs and action organs which are ready to function but not in a functioning state.  In the dvaita (two or dual) state of mind, the human mind exists as consciousness and awareness. The Upanishads call consciousness Aham and term the awareness of experiences/meanings, perceptions and cognitions as inner mental world – idam. The awareness, the manifestation of the human mental functions, is transitory and exists or ceases to be depending on the phase of mind. Awareness is present in Jagrat (Wakeful) and Swapna (dream) conscious states or phases of mind. In Jagrat Sushupti (Wakeful Sleep) or Sushupti (Deep Sleep) consciousness states or phases of mind, the awareness of mind able to comprehend mental operations and perform  mental functions will be absorbed in pure consciousness. In the Wakeful Sleep conscious state there will be continuous awareness and the mind functions if willed.

We humans learn, know, communicate, teach, perceive, think, experience, understand etc., when an interplay of wakeful , dream conscious states happen simultaneously making use of dual (dvaita) and non-dual (advaita) conscious states during which time virtual mental energy reflection, maya, the reflected chit energy transforms reversibly to enable us to perform mental tasks. This two-way-forward and reverse transformation of virtual mental reflection– is technically known as vivartanam (reversible becoming) in advaita thought. In dual (dvaita) state of mind, sense organs and action organs are active and function forming mental operations and thus enable us to perform all mental functions with the help of inner mental tools (antahkaranas–manas, buddhi, chittam and ahamkaram) which are two-way transformations of virtual mental energy reflection – maya. The alternating and simultaneous rise and  aset of dual mental state and the ever present non-dual consciousness give us cognising, communicative and other mental abilities.

                Human mental process is generally a combination and quick successive transformations of four modes i.e.,

 I Speaker/Teacher: (a) Purport/Awareness  (Meaningful Experience or Experienced Meaning (b) Understanding/Experience (c) Perception/Thinking (d) Utterance /Expression 

II Knower/Listener/Learner: (a) Knowing (through sense organs) (b) Perception/Thinking (c) Understanding/Experience (d) Purport (Meaningful Experience/Experienced Meaning)/Awareness.

Sources for this article:

 1. Ramabrahmam, V., The physical structure and function of mind: A modern scientific translation of Advaita philosophy with implications and application to cognitive sciences and natural language comprehension, Paper presented at national seminar on Sanskrit in the Modern Context conducted by Department of Sanskrit Studies and the School of humanities, University of Hyderabad between11-13, February (2008).

2. Ramabrahmam, V., Concept of mind in yoga sutras and vedanta panchadasi: A comparison, Paper presented at Patanjaluiyam, tetradic national seminar on Bharatiya Scientific Heritage Patanjaliyam-Kautilyiyam-Parasshariyam-Bharadvajiyam  (Exploration into the interface of Spiritual, Social, Agricultural and Engineering Sciences) held at SDM College, Ujjire-Dharmasthala, Mangalore, 13th-16th May, (2008).

 3. Ramabrahmam, V., The infrasonics of human cognition and communication, Paper presented at Bharadvajiyam tetradic national seminar on Bharatiya Scientific Heritage Patanjaliyam-Kautilyiyam-Parasshariyam-Bharadvajiyam  (Exploration into the interface of Spiritual, Social, Agricultural and Engineering Sciences) held at SDM College, Ujjire-Dharmasthala, Mangalore, 13th-16th May, (2008).

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